Sacraments of the Church
"Sacraments are outward and visible things or signs through which God acts, guaranteed." God uses the material things we bring to Him (water, oil, bread & wine, hands, promises) to work through them to bring us His Grace (power). He does this because He knows that we are unable to see His Grace, because we can only see physical things. So God uses those material things as channels for His Grace.
There are many sacramental actions --- for example, He can sometimes reach through to us while we are reading a Bible or praying or whatever. But the 7 Sacraments are different because they are guaranteed channels of His Grace (power) if used in faith.
Over the centuries the Church has limited the number of Sacraments to 7. This doesn't mean there aren't more, but it does mean that they Church can authoritatively talk about the 7. Here they are listed:
Baptism:The beginning of your Christian life, you are adopted by Christ, and made a full member of the Church. Normally involves making a personal commitment of your life to Christ if you are able; but children can also be baptised if parents and godparents will promise to bring the child to a commitment of Faith. Both Faith and Baptism go hand in hand, but God doesn't care which comes first. (Done by any Christian)
Confirmation: The Gifts of the Holy Spirit given to a person by the Laying on of Hands by a Bishop. Done at any time after about 10 years old. During the service, a person normally makes a verbal commitment of their life to Christ. Done by a Bishop
Eucharist (Mass): Given to us by Christ Himself at the Last Supper, the Eucharist is the basic Worship for all Christians. Based on the TAKE (Bread and Wine), BLESS (the Bread and Wine), BREAK (the Holy Bread), and GIVE (in Communion) of Christ Himself, the priest offers the Sacrifice of Christ to the Father. The Eucharist incorporates our participation in the Offering of Christ to the Father in Heaven (see Epistle to Hebrews). All baptised persons may receive the Blessed Sacrament of Commuion. The Bread and Wine become, by the action of God, the channels for the very Body and Blood of Christ. Always done by a priest
Confession: Also called the Sacrament of Penance, Confession allows us to repent of our sins in a very certain manner, telling God what we have done wrong, in the presence of a priest, who authoritatively pronounces our complete Forgiveness, base on our repentence and the mercy and love of our Lord Jesus. Though confession of sins can and should be made privately or in the General Confession, Sacramental Confession allows us to deal seriously and finally with the sins that driven us to repentance. Done by a priest
Ordination: The making of a bishop, priest or deacon. It is done by the Laying on of Hands with prayer by a Bishop only. Ordination of a Bishop is done by a minimum of 3 Bishops. Ordination incorporates the person into the community of priesthood, giving them authoratively the power to Bless (people), Consecrate (the Eucharist) and Forgive (in Confession) in the Name of Jesus Christ.
Holy Unction: The Healing Sacrament, whereby a person is anointed with Holy Oil (previously blessed by a Bishop) for Healing (Body, Mind, Spirit) accompanied by the Laying on of Hands with prayer. Normally done by a priest.
Marriage: The Blessing of the Union between a man and woman, where they promise themselves to each for life, to live together, to share, to raise children, and to grow together in Christ. The promises of the 2 people are the outward signs of the Sacrament. Done acually by the 2 people themselves; the priest is present to bestow the Nuptial Blessing.